Click here for information on $10,000 in 2005 awards for human-competitive results.

Recent years have seen significant growth in the theoretical foundations of the field of genetic and evolutionary computation, as evidenced by an increasing number of books on the theory of genetic algorithms and the theory of genetic programming, the proceedings of the Foundations of Genetic Algorithms (FOGA) and Genetic Programming Theory and Applications (GPTP) workshops, and the proceedings of numerous general conferences in the field, such as the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO). At the same time, the techniques of genetic and evolutionary computation are being increasingly adopted by industry to solve difficult real-world problems. One aspect of the progress in the field of genetic and evolutionary computation is the increasing frequent generation of “human-competitive” results. Specifically, an automatically created result is “human-competitive” if it satisfies at least one of the eight criteria below.

(A) The result was patented as an invention in the past, is an improvement over a patented invention, or would qualify today as a patentable new invention.

(B) The result is equal to or better than a result that was accepted as a new scientific result at the time when it was published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

(C) The result is equal to or better than a result that was placed into a database or archive of results maintained by an internationally recognized panel of scientific experts.

(D) The result is publishable in its own right as a new scientific result ¾ independent of the fact that the result was mechanically created.

(E) The result is equal to or better than the most recent human-created solution to a long-standing problem for which there has been a succession of increasingly better human-created solutions.

(F) The result is equal to or better than a result that was considered an achievement in its field at the time it was first discovered.

(G) The result solves a problem of indisputable difficulty in its field.

(H) The result holds its own or wins a regulated competition involving human contestants (in the form of either live human players or human-written computer programs).

2004 Human-Competitive Awards in Genetic and Evolutionary Computation

In 2004, entries were solicited for awards totaling $5,000 for human-competitive results that were produced by any form of genetic and evolutionary computation and that were published in the open literature between July 1, 2003 and the deadline for submissions (June 23, 2004). The publication could be a GECCO paper (i.e., regular paper, poster paper, or late-breaking paper) or a paper published elsewhere in the open literature (e.g., another conference, a journal, technical report, thesis, book, book chapter) or a paper that has received final acceptance and is “in press.” Click here for 2004 Call For Entries.

In 2004, there were 11 entries. The entries employed genetic algorithms (GA), genetic programming (GP), or genetic learning classifier systems (LCS). On June 27, 2004, a session was held at the 2004 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2004) in Seattle that heard 11 short presentations of the various results that were claimed to be “human-competitive” according to the eight specified criteria.

The 2004 judging committee consisted of

· Wolfgang Banzhaf

· David Goldberg

· Erik Goodman

· Riccardo Poli

After the 11 presentations, the 2004 judging committee met and considered all the entries. The committee judged 6 of the 11 results to be “human-competitive.” The judging committee recognized 5 levels of achievement: Gold, Silver, and Bronze (for the entries judged to be “human-competitive” and Merit and Honorable Mention for the remaining entries. The judging committee awarded prizes totaling $5,500. The prizes were awarded at the plenary sessions on Wednesday June 30, 2004 at the GECCO-2004 conference in Seattle.

6 Human-Competitive Results for 2004 (Gold, Silver, and Bronze Awards)




Statement of why result is human-competitive

Slide presentation on July 27 at GECCO-2004

$1500 - Gold

Jason D. Lohn

Gregory S. Hornby

Derek S. Linden

NASA Ames Research Center

An Evolved Antenna for Deployment on NASA's Space Technology 5 Mission


Slides (11 MB)

$1500 - Gold

Lee Spector

Hampshire College

Automatic Quantum Computer Programming: A Genetic Programming Approach



$500 - Silver

Alex Fukunaga


Evolving Local Search Heuristics for SAT Using Genetic Programming



$500 - Silver

Hod Lipson

Cornell University

How to Draw a Straight Line Using a GP: Benchmarking Evolutionary Design Against 19th Century Kinematic Synthesis


Slides (6 MB)

$500 - Silver

Bijan KHosraviani

Raymond E. Levitt

John R. Koza

Stanford University

Organization Design Optimization Using Genetic Programming



Additional slides

$500 - Bronze

Adrian Stoica

Ricardo Zebulum

Didier Keymeulen

Michael Ian Ferguson

Vu Duong

Xin Guo


Taking evolutionary circuit design from experimentation to implementation: some useful techniques and a silicon demonstration



5 Merit and Honorable Mention Awards for 2004

$200 - Merit

Brian Lam

RMIT University


Discovery of Human-Competitive Image Texture Feature Programs Using Genetic programming



$200 - Merit

Lukas Sekanina

Brno University of Technology

Novel image filters implemented in hardware



$100 – Honorable Mention

Ju Hui Li

Nanyang Technological University

Evolvable Fuzzy Hardware for Real-Time Embedded Control for Packet-Switching



$100 – Honorable Mention

Luis Miramontes Hercog

Terence C.Fogarty

South Bank University

Social simulation using a Multi-Agent Model based on Classifier Systems: The Emergence of Vacillating Behaviour in the ``El Farol'' Bar Problem



$100 – Honorable Mention

Hideyuki Takagi

Kyushu University

Applicability of Interactive Evolutionary Computation to Mind Measurement



Left to right, Alex Fukunaga (one of the winners of the 2004 awards for Human-Competitive Results at the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO) in Seattle on June 30, 2004, and John Koza.

· The home page of Genetic Programming Inc. at www.genetic-programming.com.

· For information about the field of genetic programming and the field of genetic and evolutionary computation, visit www.genetic-programming.org

· The home page of John R. Koza at Genetic Programming Inc. (including online versions of most published papers) and the home page of John R. Koza at Stanford University

· For information about John Koza’s course on genetic algorithms and genetic programming at Stanford University

· Information about the 1992 book Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection, the 1994 book Genetic Programming II: Automatic Discovery of Reusable Programs, the 1999 book Genetic Programming III: Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, and the 2003 book Genetic Programming IV: Routine Human-Competitive Machine Intelligence. Click here to read chapter 1 of Genetic Programming IV book in PDF format.

· 3,440 published papers on genetic programming (as of November 28, 2003) in a searchable bibliography (with many on-line versions of papers) by over 880 authors maintained by William Langdon’s and Steven M. Gustafson.

· For information on the Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines journal published by Kluwer Academic Publishers

· For information on the Genetic Programming book series from Kluwer Academic Publishers, see the Call For Book Proposals

· For information about the annual 2005 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (GECCO) conference (which includes the annual GP conference) to be held on June 25–29, 2005 (Saturday – Wednesday) in Washington DC and its sponsoring organization, the International Society for Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (ISGEC). For information about the annual 2005 Euro-Genetic-Programming Conference (and the co-located Evolutionary Combinatorial Optimization conference and other Evo-Net workshops) to be held on March 30 – April 1, 2005 (Wednesday-Friday) in Lausanne, Switzerland. For information about the annual 2005 Genetic Programming Theory and Practice (GPTP) workshop to be held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. For information about the annual 2004 Asia-Pacific Workshop on Genetic Programming (ASPGP) held in Cairns, Australia on December 6-7 (Monday-Tuesday), 2004. For information about the annual 2004 NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware Conference (EH) to be held on June 24-26 (Thursday-Saturday), 2004 in Seattle.

Last updated September 16, 2004