Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection

(Koza 1992)

840 pages

270 Illustrations

ISBN 0-262-11170-5

Available from The MIT Press

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The genetic programming paradigm provides a way to genetically breed a computer program to solve a wide variety of problems. Genetic programming starts with a population of randomly created computer programs and iteratively applies the Darwinian reproduction operation and the genetic crossover (sexual recombination) operation in order to breed better individual programs.

Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection describes and illustrates genetic programming with 81 examples from various fields.

Table of Contents

1   Introduction and Overview
2   Pervasiveness of the Problem of Program Induction
3   Introduction to Genetic Algorithms
4   The Representation Problem for Genetic Algorithms
5   Overview of Genetic Programming
6   Detailed Description of Genetic Programming
7   Four Introductory Examples of Genetic Programming
8   Amount of Processing Required to Solve a Problem
9   Nonrandomness of Genetic Programming
10  Symbolic Regression Q Error-Driven Evolution
11  Control Q Cost-Driven Evolution
12  Evolution of Emergent Behavior
13  Evolution of Subsumption
14  Entropy-Driven Evolution
15  Evolution of Strategy
16  Co-Evolution
17  Evolution of Classification
18  Iteration, Recursion, and Setting
19  Evolution of Constrained Syntactic Structures
20  Evolution of Building Blocks
21  Evolution of Hierarchies of Building Blocks
22  Parallelization of Genetic Programming
23  Ruggedness of Genetic Programming
24  Extraneous Variables and Functions
25  Operational Issues
26  Review of Genetic Programming
27  Comparison with Other Paradigms
28  Spontaneous Emergence of Self-Replicating and Self-Improving Computer Programs
29  Conclusions

Appendices contain simple software in Common LISP for implementing experiments in genetic programming.

· The home page of Genetic Programming Inc. at

· For information about the field of genetic programming and the field of genetic and evolutionary computation, visit

· The home page of John R. Koza at Genetic Programming Inc. (including online versions of most published papers) and the home page of John R. Koza at Stanford University

· For information about John Koza’s course on genetic algorithms and genetic programming at Stanford University

· Information about the 1992 book Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection, the 1994 book Genetic Programming II: Automatic Discovery of Reusable Programs, the 1999 book Genetic Programming III: Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, and the 2003 book Genetic Programming IV: Routine Human-Competitive Machine Intelligence. Click here to read chapter 1 of Genetic Programming IV book in PDF format.

· 3,440 published papers on genetic programming (as of November 28, 2003) in a searchable bibliography (with many on-line versions of papers) by over 880 authors maintained by William Langdon’s and Steven M. Gustafson.

· For information on the Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines journal published by Kluwer Academic Publishers

· For information on the Genetic Programming book series from Kluwer Academic Publishers, see the Call For Book Proposals

· For information about the annual 2005 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (GECCO) conference (which includes the annual GP conference) to be held on June 25–29, 2005 (Saturday – Wednesday) in Washington DC and its sponsoring organization, the International Society for Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (ISGEC). For information about the annual 2005 Euro-Genetic-Programming Conference (and the co-located Evolutionary Combinatorial Optimization conference and other Evo-Net workshops) to be held on March 30 – April 1, 2005 (Wednesday-Friday) in Lausanne, Switzerland. For information about the annual 2005 Genetic Programming Theory and Practice (GPTP) workshop to be held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. For information about the annual 2004 Asia-Pacific Workshop on Genetic Programming (ASPGP) held in Cairns, Australia on December 6-7 (Monday-Tuesday), 2004. For information about the annual 2004 NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware Conference (EH) to be held on June 24-26 (Thursday-Saturday), 2004 in Seattle.

Last updated on August 20, 2004