Artificial Life at Stanford 1994

(Book of Student Papers from John Koza's Course at Stanford on Artificial Life)

This page contains links to PDF files for the papers written by students describing their term projects in John Koza’s course on artificial life  (CS 425) in Spring 1994 quarter.

This volume is in the Mathematics and Computer Science Library in the Main Quad at Stanford University.

These papers are available in book form from the Stanford University Bookstore by calling 650-329-1217 or 800-533-2670 or by writing Stanford Bookstore, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-3079 USA. The E-Mail address of the bookstore for mail orders is  Be sure to refer to "Custom Publishing" when ordering these items to avoid confusion and to mention the ISBN number (or Stanford Bookstore order number), the exact title.


Evolution of Planning: Using Recursive Techniques in Genetic Programming by Scott Brave




Evolving Reusable Subroutines for Genetic Programming by Oliver Brock




Single Populations v. Co-Evolution by James Davis




Spontaneous Emergence of Multicellular Organisms from Unicellular Ancestors by Gary Fehr





Altruistic Ants by Mike Haberman




Emulating Evolution in a Kolmogorov Predator-Trey Model with Genetic Algorithm Extensions by Mark S. Hahn





A Discrete Artificial Organic Chemistry and Search for Autocatalysis by Saul Kato




Taking Advantage of Diversity in Genetic Algorithms by Mark Klausner




The Effect of the Interaction Fraction on Stable
Long Term Patterns in ECHO systems and Markers for Determination of Final State by Todd Krein






An Approach to Analyzing the Immune System with Genetic Algorithms by David Kruckemyer





Sufficient Parameters for Population Dynamics Simulations with Adaptation by Gerald Luiz





Hive: Development of a Language among Artificial Lifeforms by Daniel Malmer




Faster Neural Network Architectures from Genetic Algorithms by James McNames




MacBeth Meets A-Life by Christian L. Mogensen




Evolving Metazoans in Echo by Stephen Ong




Another Approach to the Synthesis of Life by Shan-Ng Pak




A Study on the Emergence of Trade in Artificial Organisms by Rob Powers




The Evolution of Resistance to Crossover and Mutation in Genetic Programming by

Bradley Rhodes





Evolving Stopping Rule Mating Strategies using Genetic Programming by Steven Spitz




The Genetic Coding of Behavioral Attributes in Cellular Automata by Tim Stefanini




Using Lamarckian Evolution to Increase the Effectiveness of Neural Network Training with a Genetic Algorithm and Backpropagation by Stewart Taylor





Complexity and Survivability: The Price of Intelligence under Genetic Pressure by Lawrence Waugh





Appendix - Course Materials




· The home page of Genetic Programming Inc. at

· For information about the field of genetic programming in general, visit

· The home page of John R. Koza at Genetic Programming Inc. (including online versions of most papers) and the home page of John R. Koza at Stanford University

· For information about John Koza’s course on genetic algorithms and genetic programming at Stanford University

· Information about the 1992 book Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection, the 1994 book Genetic Programming II: Automatic Discovery of Reusable Programs, the 1999 book Genetic Programming III: Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, and the 2003 book Genetic Programming IV: Routine Human-Competitive Machine Intelligence. Click here to read chapter 1 of Genetic Programming IV book in PDF format.

· For information on 3,198 papers (many on-line) on genetic programming (as of June 27, 2003) by over 900 authors, see William Langdon’s bibliography on genetic programming.

· For information on the Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines journal published by Kluwer Academic Publishers

· For information on the Genetic Programming book series from Kluwer Academic Publishers, see the Call For Book Proposals

· For information about the annual Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (GECCO) conference (which includes the annual GP conference) to be held on June 26–30, 2004 (Saturday – Wednesday) in Seattle and its sponsoring organization, the International Society for Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (ISGEC). For information about the annual Euro-Genetic-Programming Conference to be held on April 5-7, 2004 (Monday – Wednesday) at the University of Coimbra in Coimbra Portugal. For information about the 2003 and 2004 Genetic Programming Theory and Practice (GPTP) workshops held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. For information about Asia-Pacific Workshop on Genetic Programming (ASPGP03) to be held in Canberra, Australia on December 8, 2003. For information about the annual NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware Conference (EH) to be held on June 24-26 (Thursday-Saturday), 2004 in Seattle.

Last updated on December 7, 2003